Our benchmark suite consists of the six SPEC programs and the four other benchmarks shown in Table 1. We have included three of the FORTRAN SPEC programs for comparison with the non-numeric programs. The standard inputs were used for the SPEC benchmarks. The programs were compiled for a MIPS R3000 processor by the MIPS C and FORTRAN compilers with full optimization. The traces were obtained using the MIPS pixie tool, and each program was simulated for up to 100 million instructions. Our instruction traces include library routines but not system calls, so we ignore dependences that occur within the operating system.